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History and Government Paper 2

SECTION A (25 Marks)

Answer ALL questions in this section

i. Weapons

. ii. Tools.

iii. Coins.

iv. Pots.

v. Baskets

2 marks


i. Skinning of animals.

ii. Cutting.

iii. Scraping.

iv. Digging

2 marks


i. Farming / cultivation /growing crops.

ii. Domestication of animals.

iii. Establishment of permanent settlements.

iv. Making of microlithic tools.

v. Pottery and basketry.

vi. Barter trade.

vii. Burial ceremonies.

viii. Painting and making pictures.

ix. Cloth making.

x. Development of religion.

2 marks


i. Open field system was inefficient as land was not utilised.

ii. Existence of small strips of land discouraged use of farm machineries.

iii. Existence of fallow pieces of land, footpath, wasted land.

iv. Common grazing system of livestock made it difficult to control spread of diseases.

v. Broadcasting method of planting led to wastage of seeds as some were eaten by rodents and birds

2 marks


i. Involved groups of people who produced different goods.

ii. Was between neighbouring communities.

iii. Local goods were exchanged.

iv. Goods produced depend on environmental and climatic conditions.

v. Depended on uneven distributors of natural resources

2 marks


The wheeled wagons.

The wheeled carts

1 marks


i. Some of them like cellphone and Tv’s encourage pornography.

ii. Some e.g T.v’s encourage violence and use of drugs among youths.

iii. Cellphones causes cancer due to radioactivity

1 marks


i. Statutes/Acts of parliament.

ii. Precedents (judicial/decisions)

iii. Government publications.

iv. Hansard reports/parliamentary customs.

v. Publication by scholars and lawyers.

vi. Historic documents

2 marks


Fredrick Lugard.

1 marks


Signing of treaties

1 marks


i. Provided the shortest sea route to India.

ii. Countries which founded the constructions of Suez Canal claimed refund in the name of colonizing Egypt.

iii. Whoever was to control Egypt was to control the waters of the Nile hence, colonization of countries a long river Nile

2 marks




2 marks


To lay down rules for European partition of Africa

1 marks


i. Had to withdraw from all occupied territories and colonies

. ii. Withdraw her forces from west of the Rhine.

iii. All Germany worships to surrender to the allies.

iv. Germany to release all allied powers prisoners of war.

v. Germany to pay war damages of over 6.5billions sterling pounds to the allies.

vi. Germany was totally disarmed.

vii. Austria was declared independent of Germany

2 marks


i. Failed to stop Italian invasion e.g Ethiopia

. ii. Failed to stop Germany from violating the terms of the conference in Paris.

iii. Nations continued to form military alliances.

iv. Germany invaded other regions e.g Poland and Austria with no action from league.

v. Failed to stop outbreak of World war II

1 marks


i. Germany.

ii. Italy.

iii. Japan.

iv. Austria.

v. Turkey.

vi. Bulgeria

1 marks

SECTION B (45 Marks)

Answer THREE questions from this section


i. Both developed a system of storage and preservation of farm and transport.

ii. Availability of water and transport.

iii. Both developed system of irrigation.

iv. Both used farm implement made of stone.

v. They traded in farm produce.

vi. They reared animals e.g cattle, sheep, chicken etc.

vii. They planted indigenous crops e.g wheat, barley oats etc

viii. Used both human and animal labour.

ix. Both developed writing to keep farm records.(Any 1x5=mks)


i. Led to establishment of large farms that encouraged landlords to buy off poor farmers creating a class of landless people.

ii. Increased food production led to regular food supply and food security.

iii. Increased population due to enough food supply.

iv. Diversification of a agriculture e.g crops like cloves, potatoes and high yield dairy animals.

v. Rural-urban migration because of landlessness.

vi. Availability of raw materials led to industrialization.

vii. Expansion of local and international trade.
viii. Improvement of transport system for quick transportation of farm produce

. ix. Enhanced research and scientific innovation.

x. Production of sufficient food led to improved living standards.

xi. Mechanisation of farming methods led to redundancy manual workers

15 marks


. (a)

i. Small and compact hence effective administration.

ii. Had well trained army for defence.

iii. The decline of Bunyoro –Kitara Kingdom

iv. Had centralised administration.

v. Strong agricultural base hence availability of food.

vi. Received support from the British.

vii. Had strong reliable rulers.

viii. Division of labour gave more time for politics.

ix. Participation in long distance trade.

x. Had weak and unstable neighbours e.g Busoga.

xi. Acquisition of wealth made it military and economically powerful.

xii. Strategic locations e.g proximity to lake Victoria.


i. The empire comprised of three parts: Metropolitan Asante, Amatoo states, and Provincial Asante.

ii. They had a king called Asantehen. iii. The king was adviced by union council made of state kings called Omanhenes.

iv. Metropolitan Asante was ruled directly by Asantehene.

v. Amatoo comprised states outside Kumasi within a region of 80 km led by Omanhenes.

vi. Omanhenes pledged loyalty to the Asantehene.

vii. Provincial Asante was made up of all conquered states.

viii. The golden stool was a symbol of loyalty and unity in the Kingdom.

ix. They had annual ceremony called Odwira festival which also promoted unity.

x. Had strong and well aquiped army with guns and horses

15 marks


. (a)

i. To promote peace and understanding.

ii. To promote development of power member states

. iii. Co-operate in the matters of education, sports and economic development.

iv. Promote equality of rights of all citizens.


i. Members receive financial and technical assistance.

ii. They have enjoyed understanding and co-operation.

iii. Boosted trade among members.

iv. Cultural interaction through sports among members. Peace keeping missions.

v. Democracy and good governance.

vi. Provides forum to slave viewers.

vii. Development of legal program.

viii. Scholarship to boost education in developing member states

15 marks



i. There were few African representations in the movement.

ii. Africans were restricted by the colonial authorities to organize movements opposed to colonial rule.

iii. Lack of communication or co-operation between Africans in different colonies due to divide and rule

. iv. Africans were concerned with issues that were of particular interest to them.

v. African countries that were not colonized e.g Ethiopia were pre-occupied with their own internal problems.

vi. Lack of adequate machinery to communicate ideas since they were controlled by governments.

vii. Africans in Africa had more serious and urgent problem like land alienations.


i. Sharp differences between extremists and moderators.

ii. Many European groups forced the Pan-Africans e.g Marcus Carvey
iii. Africans from Africa denied visas to travel due to colonialisation

. iv. Insufficient funds and poor management skill.

v. Illiteracy and ignorance among Africans.

vi. The movement split into two camps e.g Brazzaville and Casablanca.

vii. European powers used the media to spread negative propaganda.

viii. Quarells among Africans leaders due to boarder problems.

15 marks

SECTION C (30 Marks)

Answer any TWO questions in this section


i. To promote trade between member states

. ii. To promote common services in East Africa e.g railway transport.

iii. To facilitate free movement of people to the regions.

iv. To promote a forum for discussing economic and political issues.


i. Suspension still exist between member states.

ii. Kenyan business people in the region have complained of harassment.

iii. Relationship between East African states are strained by other factors e.g fishermen are frequently arrested.

iv. Cattle rustling across the boarders v. Membership to other regional economic organization

15 marks


. (a)

i. Pan-African movement that declared Africa for Africans.

ii. International opinion against colonialisation by UNO

. iii. Pan-African congress in 1945 attended by African nationalism

. iv. Emergence of labour party in Britain in 1945.

v. Emergence of USSR and USA as super power.

vi. The African ex-soldiers.

vii. Attainment of independence of India and Ghana.


i. He was a member of ANC youth league that believed in use of force to achieve independence.

ii. He was a lawyer and assisted many Africans who got into trouble.

iii. He founded the ANC underground movement Umkhonto we Sizwe.

iv. Mobilized people to defy segregation laws.

v. He travelled to many parts of the country teaching masses on evils of apartheid.

vi. Was sentenced to life imprisonment because of his links with sabotage.

vii. In 1990 Mandela was released from prison and declared president

15 marks



i. Enabled Lugard to administer a large territory with few British officers

. ii. Reduced the coast of British administration of Northern Nigeria.

iii. Abolition of slavery and bad customs.

iv. African received apprenticeship in management.

v. Streamlined the indigenous system of administration.


i. Desire to control the economy of Zimbabwe.

ii. Indigenous/local political institution based on Indunas had been destroyed by the British occupation.

iii. To ensure complete control of Africans.

iv. The presence of IBEACO pressure who were familiar with the area and the British system of government.

v. Ndebele chief and their people gave stiff resistance against British occupation.

vi. Favourable climatic conditions and expected mineral deposits.

vii. Strong desire by Europeans to be able to direct own a affairs destiny without interferences

15 marks

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