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Geography Paper 2

SECTION A (25 Marks)


a) Minerals may occur.

i. In veins and lodes.√

ii. In seams and layers.√ iii. As alluvial deposits.√

iv. As weathering products.√ (Mark the first three only) (1 x 3 = 3 marks)

b) Energy mineral - uranium√ 1 x 1 = 1 mark

c) OPEC stands for Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries. 1 x 1 =1 mark

4 marks


a) Forest refers to a continuous growth of trees and undergrowth covering over a large tract of

land while forestry refers to the science of developing and managing forests.√√ (2 marks) (Mark as a block)

b) Exotic softwood species in Kenya.

-Cypress. √



-Cedar√ (juniper) (Mark the first two only) (1 x 2 = 2 marks)

c) The reason for the introduction of exotic soft-wood in Kenya.

-They are early maturing.

-They are soft and easier to work with.

-They are light and easier to transport. (Mark the first one only) (1 x 1 = 1 mark)

5 marks


a) Two counties where wheat is grown.






-Uasin Gishu (Mark the first two only) (1 x 2 =2 marks)

b) Problems facing plantation farming.

i. Climatic hazards like drought and hailstorms are a big problem. √

ii. Insect pests and diseases (name of pest or disease scores). √

iii. Rapid deterioration of the soil. √

iv. Challenges caused by poor management. √

v. Frequent labour unrest. √ (Mark the first 3 only) (1 x 3 = 3 marks)

5 marks


a) Differentiate between horticulture and market- gardening. Horticulture is the practice of growing fruits,

vegetables and flowers for sale WHILE market gardening is the cultivation of fruits and vegetables

for sale in one nearby urban centres.√√ (Mark as a block) (2 marks)
B) Factors favouring horticulture around Naivasha. √

-Naivasha has a reliable water supply for irrigation. √

-The area is served by a well-developed road network. √

-The area has well-drained, warm volcanic soils which suit horticulture. √

-The Naivasha region experiences a warm and sunny climate suitable for the ripening of most horticultural crops. √

-It is within easy reach of many urban centres which provide market

for horticultural products. √ (Mark the first 3 only) (1 x 3 = 3 marks)

5 marks


a) Exotic beef breeds of cattle reared in Kenya.

-Aberdeen Angus. √




-Charolais√ (Mark the first 2 only) (1 x 2 = 2 marks)

b) Characteristics of beef farming.

i. Manly practiced on extensive, gently sloping land. √

ii. It involves rearing of cattle mainly for meat production. √

iii. It is done for commercial purposes. √

iv. It involves modern methods of livestock rearing like

cross-breeding and artificial insemination. √

v. The places where it is practiced have all the basic cattle

requirements like watering point and dips. √

vi. Management of the ranches is scientific and movement of the

animals is restricted. √ (Mark the first three only) (1 x 3 = 3mks)

5 marks

SECTION B (75 Marks)


b)i) -Tea earnings accounted for the highest percentage of the total√.

-Horticulture was the second in value of the export crops. √

-Coffee was the third most valuable export crops. √

-Maize contributed the least percentage by value. √ (1 x 4 = 4 marks)

ii) Advantages of a divided rectangle.

-It is easy to draw/construct. √

-Comparison of components is easy/Easy to interpret (since they are arranged side by side in descending order) √

-It takes up less space than graphs. √

-Each component’s proportion to the total is easily seen. √

-It gives a clear visual impression. (Mark the first 2 only) (1 x 2 = 2 marks)

5 marks


a) It is because however extensive or large the forest is, continuous exploitation

will eventually Exhaust it. (1 mark)

b) Management of forests is the effective planning and control of forests and their

resources WHEREAS conservation of forests refers to the protection of forests against

interference and destruction by human activities. (Mark as a block) √ (2 marks)
c)i) -Afforestation – increasing area under forest. √


– replacing forests or trees which are cleared. √

-Passing laws to deter depletion of forests. √

-Encouraging community participation. √

-Creation of forest reserves. √

-Encouraging agroforestry. √ (Mark the first 3) (1 x 3 = 3 marks)

ii) Agroforestry is the intercropping crops with certain species of trees. (1 mark)

iii) Agroforestry is encouraged by the government of Kenya because

i. It helps to address the increased demand for fuel wood. √

ii. It keeps in the provision of timber for various uses. √

iii. It is a way of combating soil erosion. √

iv. Some of the trees are used as anima fodder. √

v. Some trees like mangoes provide fruits for human consumption. √

vi. The trees planted on farm land act as windbreaks. √ (Mark any 4) (2 x 4 = 8 marks)

d)i) Factors which favour development of softwood.

-Both Kenya and Canada experience cool climate which favour growth of softwood (coniferous trees.) √

-Certain portions in both Kenya and Canada both have rugged relief which discourages other forms of land use. √

-Both Kenya (especially in highland areas) and Canada receive heavy rainfall

which favour growth of softwoods. √ (2 x 3 = 6 marks)

ii) Differences of mode of exploitation of forests.

(a) In Kenya the workers are transported daily to logging site WHITE in

Canada logging camps where workers stay are set up. (Mark as a block) √ (2 marks)

(b) Transportation of logs in Kenya is by road WHILE in Canada it is mainl

y by rivers in which logs are floated.√√ (Mark as a block) (2 marks)

25 marks


a)i) Transhumance is the altitudinal seasonal migration of herdsmen with their animals

from lowlands to highlands/ from highlands to lowlands WHILE nomadism is the traditional

extensive livestock grazing on natural pasture which involves seasonal migration in search

of water and pasture. (Mark as a block) (2 marks)

ii) The Maasai√

b)i) -It is practiced on extensive grasslands with sparse population and where

rainfall is too low to support arable farming. √

-Most regions where it is practiced have continuous green pasture which is usually natural.

-The ranches are large and so there is controlled grazing. √ (1x 2 = 2 marks) (Mark the first 2)

ii) Areas where ranching is practiced in Kenya.

i. Taita Taveta√

ii. Parts of the Rift Valley(Nakuru,Naivasha,Baringo). √

iii. Machakos√ iv. Makueni√ (Mark the first three) (1 x 3 = 3 marks)

c) Human factors favouring dairy farming in Central Kenya.

25 marks

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