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Geography Paper 1


a. Apart from moons and planets, name two other objects found in the solar system.

i. Asteroids

ii. Comets

iii. Meteors and meteorite iv. Sun ( Any 2 x 1 = 2 marks)

b. State any three common characteristics of planets.

i. Are spherical in shape.

ii. Move on regular paths called orbits.

iii. Rotate on their own axis.

iv. Move in anticlockwise direction around the sun. (Any 3 x 1 = 3)

5 marks


a. Differentiate between mass wasting and mass movement.

  • Mass wasting is the movement of weathered material under the influence of gravity while mass movement is the movement of weathered rock materials down slope after lubrication my rain/melt water. (1 x 2 = 2 marks).

b. State three factors that influence soil creep.

i. Alternate heating and cooling of the soil.

ii. Alternate wetting and drying of the soil.

iii. Shaking of the ground by earth quakes/heavy trucks.

iv. Removal of the soil downhill. (Any 3 x 1 = marks)

5 marks


a. Define the term river rejuvenation.

  • River rejuvenation is the renewal of the river’s erosive activities.

b. Identify three features that result due to river rejuvenation.

i. River terraces.

ii. Incised meanders

iii. Rejuvenation gorges

iv. Knick points

v. Abandoned meanders (any 3 x 1 =3 marks)

5 marks


a. State two ways in which metamorphic rocks are formed.

i. Through heating where the original rocks are subjected intense heat/contact metamorphism

. ii. When the original rock is subjected to great pressure dynamic metamorphism.

iii. When the original rock is subjected to both heat and pressure. (Any 2 x 1 = 2 marks)

(b). Give three characteristics of metamorphic rocks.

i. They are generally harder than original rocks.

ii. Some contain crystalline minerals

iii. Resistant to erosion.

iv. Form thin sheets called plate. (any 3 x 1 = 3 marks)

5 marks


a. Apart from Fold Mountains, identify other two features formed as a result of folding.

i. Rolling plains

ii. Intermontane basins

iii. Intetmontane plateax

iv. Depressions (Any 2 x 1 = 2marks)

b. State three ways in which folding influence human activities.

i. Fold Mountains form beautiful sceneries that attract tourists hence earn countries foreign exchange.

ii. Wind ward side of Fold Mountains receives heavy rainfall which supports forests and forestry.

iii. Some fold Mountains act as water catchment areas/source of rivers.

iv. Fold Mountains pose barrier which make construction of transport routes expensive.

v. Anticlines trap petroleum and natural gas making it easy to mine them. (Accept other relevant -any 2 x 1 = 2 marks)

5 marks


a(i). Give the six figure grid reference for the dam in Keelah farm to the western part of the area. (2 marks)

(ii). Identify two ways in which relief is represented in the area covered by the map.

i. Trigonometrical station.

ii. Contours (2 marks)

(iii). State four economic activities found in the area covered by the map

i. Trading

ii. Transport

iii. Communication

iv. Crop farming

v. Forestry (Any 4 x 1 = 4 marks)

ii. Measure the distance of the dry weather road C637 from junction in grid square 2528 to the junction near Dafina estate.

ci. Draw a rectangle measuring 5 cm to represent the area between eastings 23 and 31 and Northings 11 and 21.


d(i) i. It is cool due to high attitude.

ii. Receives high rainfall due to many permanent rivers/water√

iii. The western part receives seasonal rainfall due to seasonal swamp. (2 marks)

d(ii). Describe the drainage of the area covered by the map.

i. The area covered by the map has many rivers.

ii. Most of the rivers are permanent e.g. R. Koitabos.

iii. The western part of the area covered by the map has seasonal swamps.

iv. There is a papyrus swamp along river Koitabos. (any 3 x 2 = 6 marks)

25 marks

  1. a) Give three natural causes of earthquakes. (3 marks)

-Movement of magma through crustal rocks/vulcanicity.

-Isostatic adjustment.

-Tectonic movement/faulting/folding.

-Convectional currents in the mantle.

-Gravitative pressure.

-Energy release in the mantle. 3 x 1 = (3 marks)

b)i) Name two types of seismic waves. (3 marks)

-Primary/P waves.

-Surface longitudinal waves/L waves

-Secondary waves/S waves. 2 x 1 = (2 marks)

ii) What is vulcanicity? (2 marks)

The process through which liquid or gaseous materials are forced out of the interior into the earth’s crust or onto the earth’s surface.

1 x 2 = (2 marks)

c) State two causes of vulcanicity. (2 marks)

-High pressure in the interior of the earth which is released by earth movements.

-High temperatures which cause solid rock material change into molten state/magma.

-Faulting which creates cracks and fissures in the rocks through which magma escapes.

2 x 1 = (2marks)

d) Giving examples, describe how each of the following is formed.

i) A lava plateau. (4 marks) -Formed when basic or ultra-basic lava reaches the earth’s surface through single or multiple

vents /fissures.

-The lava spreads over a large area because it has low viscosity before cooling.

-The lava cools rapidly forming an extensive table like platform known as a lava plateau.

-The plateau may form due to a series of eruptions which results in thick layers of lava.

Example of lava plateau is:

-Yatta plateau

-Laikipia plateau Description maximum 3

-Uasin Gishu plateau Example 1 4

-North West Kenya plateau

-Maralal-stony Athi plateau.

N/B Diagram not a must.

ii) Caldera (4 marks)

Can form in either of the following ways.

Outward collapsing

-Volcanic eruption of pyroclasts /cinder and ash through a central vent forms a volcanic cone.

-Several subsequent eruption result in the formation of a high steep sided and unstable volcano.

-The weight of the upper part of the volcano exerts pressure on the lower part making it unstable.

-The material at the base begin to spread outwards.

-The top of the volcano collapses inwards forming a depression.

-*The resultant large circular depression in the top of the volcano is the caldera.


-Lava pouring out of a central vent forms a volcanic core.

-The magma reservoir below the crust is left partly empty/develops a void/ cavity.

-Over time the weight of the rocks of the volcano exerts pressure on the crustal rocks below.

-The pressure/earth movements cause cracks to develop making the volcano unstable.

-Eventually the middle portion of the volcano collapses into the void forming a depression.

-*The large depression on top of the now lower volcano is called a caldera.

Example Menengai, Ngorongoro, Lake Shala

Description maximum 3

Example -1 max (4 marks)


By violent explosion.

- A volcanic eruption occurs forming a volcano.

- The magma in the vent cools and solidifies sealing the vent.

- Over time the gases and the steam beneath the volcano in the interior are heated by molten lava.

- They expand increasing pressure below the volcano.

- When the pressure is too high it overcomes the resistance of the volcanos rocks.

-This causes the top of the volcano to explode violently blowing off the top/head.

-*This results in the formation of a new and large depression called explosion caldera.


Description max 3 mrks

Example 1 mark 4 marks

NB*Must be mentioned to score maximum 3 marks in description

e) Your class is required to carry out a field study on igneous rocks around your school.

i) Give three sources of information you are likely to refer to before the field study. (3 marks)

-Relevant reference books.


-The internet/electronic media.

-Geological maps/National Atlas.



-Geography notes

ii) State three activities you are likely to carry out during the field study. (3 marks)

-Observing rocks

-Collecting samples

-Labelling samples

-Digging/breaking the rocks

-Sketching diagrams/maps.

-Filling in tables/tabulation

-Identifying rocks. 3 x 1 = (3 marks)

iii) State two problems you are likely to encounter during the field study. (2 marks) -Heavy rain.

-Attack by wild animals/insects/snake bites.

-Shortage of time.

-The area was too large to cover.

-Walking for long distances/getting tired.

-Inaccessibility of some areas. 2 x 1= (2 marks)

25 marks

  1. a)i) Differentiate between aridity and desertification. (2 marks)

Aridity refers to the state of land being deficient in moisture leading to scarcity of vegetation or lack of it while desertification is the steady encroachment of desert like conditions into formerly productive agricultural land.1 x 2 = (2 marks)

ii) Name two types of deserts. (2 marks)

-Rocky desert/erg/koum

-Stony desert/reg/serir

-Sandy desert/Hamada (2x1=2 marks)

b)i) Explain three reasons why wind is the main/dominant agent of erosion in hot deserts.(6mks)

-Presence of loose/dry sand which is easily carried by wind.

-Desert winds are very strong hence easily erode and carry away a lot of materials.

-Absence of vegetation cover to break wind speed/force which exposes the desert surface to easy erosion.

-Extensive flat terrain which allows wind to gain strength/speed which gives power to erode.

3 x 2= (6 marks)

ii) State four factors that influence wind deposition in the desert. (4 marks)

-Nature of the desert surface.

-Presence of obstacles.

-Strength and direction of wind.

-Variation in the weather conditions.

-Amount of load carried by wind. 4 x 1 = (4 marks)

c)i) Give three processes of wind erosion in deserts. (3 marks)



-Attrition 3 x 1 = (3 marks)

ii) Name three features that form as a result of water action in deserts. (3 marks)


-Buttes and mesas



-Alluvial fans


-Inland drainage basins/playas


-Pediplains 3 x 1 = (3 marks)

d) Your class is required to carry out a field study on desert features resulting from wind action.

i) State three reasons why you may need to sample parts of the desert. (3 marks)

-To save on time.

-To reduce the cost of the field study

-To focus on relevant areas.

-To conduct a detailed study of the areas selected.

-To reduce bias in data collection.

-The whole desert is too big to cover it adequately. (3x1=3 marks)

ii) List two sampling techniques you are likely to use. (2 marks)




25 marks

  1. a)i) Name the features marked M, N and O. (3 marks)

M - Blow hole (1 mark)

N - Cave (1 mark)

O - Cliff (1 mark)

ii) Name three types of submerged coasts. (3 marks)

-Fiord/fjords/fjard coasts

-Ria coasts

-Dalmation/longitudinal coasts.

-Estuarine coasts. 3 x 1= (3 marks)

b)i) State five conditions that favour the growth of coral. (5 marks)

-The water should be warm about 200-300C

-The water should be shallow/depth of upto 60 m to allow penetration of sunlight.

-The water should be clear and free from silt/mud.

-Well oxygenated water.

-The water should be saline/salty

-There should be plentiful supply of plankton. 5 x 1 = (5 marks)

ii) Explain three ways in which coral contributes to the growth of Kenyan’s economy. (6 marks)

-Coral forms beautiful features which attract tourists who bring foreign exchange.

-Coral reefs provide a habitat for fish to breed which promotes the fishing industry/which is a source of food.

-Coral leads to formation of limestone which is used as a raw material for manufacture of cement.

-Coral rocks provide building material which is used in the building and construction industry.

-Some coral stones are extracted and sold as ornaments which earns income. 3 x 2= (6 marks)

c)i) State three conditions that are necessary for the formation of a beach. (3 marks)

-A gently sloping land at the sea shore.

-The shore should be shallow.

-Wave deposition should be greater than erosion/constructive waves/strong and weak backwash.

-Wave should carry a lot of sand to be deposited. 3 x 1 = (3 marks)

ii) Apart from raised beaches, name three other features which indicate coastal emergence.(3mks

-Raised wave cut platform.

-Exposed coral rocks.

-Cliffs 3x 1 = (3 marks)

-Exposed caves.

-Raised beaches.

iii) Differentiate between a barrier reef and fringing reef.

-A barrier reef is formed a long distance away from the shore and separated from shore by a wide deep lagoon while a fringing reef is closer to the shore and in separated from the shore by a shallow lagoon.√√ 1 x 2 = (2 marks

25 marks

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