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English Paper 3



Q1 (a).

- It must be a story.
- The story must illustrate the saying
- It should portray an incident where an opportunity arises but the narrator fails to make use of it when it is presented. This is because this chance will not last forever.

- If it is a discussion deduct up to 4 marks.

Q1 (b).

- Must be a story. If not deduct up to 4 marks.
- Must end with the sentence given if not deduct up to 2 marks.

- The story should lead to a situation in which someone is caught in the act obviously one that is unacceptable.

20 marks


Ngugi Wa Thiong o, The River Between

Compulsory set text
The River Between by Ngugi wa Thiogio
I. Introduction
It can either be general or specific.
It is true that the way a parent brings up a child actually determines his future. In the novel, we have a number of parents. These include: Chege the father to Waiyaki, Kabonyi the father to Kamau and Joshua a father to Muthoni and Nyambura.

P I. Chege
Chege is a revered elder form Makuyu who represents tradition. He is growing old but as a responsible father he inducts his son to indigenous knowledge so that he can fit in the Gikuyu way of life as an adult. He prepares him psychologically for the second birth and circumcision. He also takes him to the sacred grove. He shows him herbs to treat stomachache and the ones to use for first aid in case one cuts himself. He narrates to Wayaki myths about Gikuyu origin and the lineage of Mugo wa Kibiro the respected beer and his rejection by the people.

These accounts strike Waiyaki and he gets inspired. This is a way of preparing Waiyaki to become a leader in the future and sustain the Gikuyu culture.
Chege also advises his son to join a missionary school at Siriana to gain western education. He tells him to go and get their education but he should not be influenced by their ways. This is a way of preparing Waiyaki to liberate the people of the ridges form colonialism. We later see Waiyaki using education as a weapon of uniting the ridges with unity they will easily fight the whiteman.
However, he does not guide his son on the loyalty to the tribe thus he finds himself in trouble with the Kiama. He also does not guide Waiyaki on marriage and that is why he falls in love with Nyambura.

P II. Joshua
Joshua is among the first Christian converts. He is overzealous in carrying out his missionary work. He is a father to Nyambura and Muthoni. He is convinced that Christianity is the only way and as a result feels that Africans are barbaric for adhering to their customs.This makes his daughters to rebel. They do not find Joshua a person who practices what he preaches. They then start questioning what they observe. For instance Nyambura wonders about the love he preaches and Muthoni questions why he had to marry a circumcised wife. This leads to Muthoni running away from home to the aunt’s place to get circumcised while Nyambura falls in love with Waiyaki.

P. III. Kabonyi
Kabonyi is a father to Kamau. He defects from Christianity and becomes a diehard traditionalist. After Waiyaki is expelled from Sinana, he starts independent schools. The community then forms the Kiama (a council of elders) to run the schools and start agitating for the people’s rights. Kabonyi becomes jealous of Waiyaki. He feels that his son Kamau should take Waiyaki’s position and as result he is out to frustrate his efforts on the educational projects.

He therefore plants a seed of hatred and envy in Kamau instead of guiding him.Thus Kamau ensures that he spies on Waiyaki and reports every more Waiyaki makes to the Kiama.
He unlites him that Waiykaki is younger and that he should not overshadow him. We see Kamau thus becoming a great rival of Waiyaki over Nyambura and over leadership.

P. IV. Miriam
Miriam a wife to Joshua and a mother to Nyambura and Muthoni contribute to the two girls becoming rebellious. As a mother she has the chance to guide them into real Gikuyu woman. She is a true Gikuyu woman who knows traditional ways of bringing up young girls. But since she is married to Joshua a staunch Christian, she fears him thus fails to bring up her daughters according to societal expectations’. No wonder Muthoni runs away from and Nyambura falls in love with Waiyaki.

Accept any other relevant illustrations
Expect four well illustrated points.
Mark 3 : 3: 3: 3 total 12 marks.

It can either be general or summary of the points discussed.
Introduction 2 marks
Content 12 marks
Conclusion 2 marks
Language 4 marks
When the sun goes down and other stories from Africa and beyond.

20 marks


Answer any one of the following three questions.

3. (a). Introduction
Can either be general or specific. It is true that love is a sanctuary for those who have HIV or AIDS related diseases. A sanctuary is a place of comfort, encouragement or getting assistance or help. In the story when “The sun goes down” Steve and Maureen are HIV positive the close friends and the community at large fail to extend a hand of love to them. However, it is only Steve who shows concern towards Maureen.

S. I. The crowd
Despite the fact that the crowd is aware that Steve is positive and have to help him, they do not move close to him even to console him. Instead they talk about him. Steve reveals this by saying “He could feel the piercing gaze of their eyes like enemy fires on his body ......”
If they would have shown love /concern, Steve would have felt a sense of belonging hence overcome stigma.

S. II. Kanja
Kanja is a long time friend to Steve who seems to have joined the crown on turning against Steve. We expect that as a close friend he would encourage Steve to put up with the situation. But he joins the gossips and even fears approaching Steve. And when he plucks up the courage and is invited to Steve’s house, he refuses to take the juice given to him thus intensifying the discrimination against those who are HIV positive thus mounting up stigma especially in Maureen. Would he have shown love by receiving the juice, Maureen’s state would not have worsened. This stigma leads to her death.

S. III. Kabia
He is Steve’s neighbour. When Maureen falls ill at night and Steve feels, she should be taken to the hospital, Tom his neighbour goes to Kabia’s house for assistance. Kabia is not ready to let his car be used. It is possible he may not have let his car be used because Maureen is HIV positive thus Steve opts for Tom’s truck. This stigmatizes Steve since he is even unable to commend when Tom returns without the car.

S. IV. Steve
It is only Steve who shows love towards Maureen. As husband he is aware that it is Maureen who infected him, but he does not hate her.
He cooks for her, encourages her and even plays for her a love lyric. He tells her that even if they die, they will resurrect through Kimotho. Pp 23.
Despite this encouragement Maureen remains hopeless and then passes on.

S V. Tom
Despite Steve approaching him at night, he offers to help him find a car to take Maureen to hospital. He ever accompanies Steve to hospital at night. He at least shows love to his neighbour. This could have encouraged Steve but unfortunately Maureen passes on.
Accept any other relevant point.
Expect four well developed points
Can be general or specific

3. b. Shreds of tenderness by John Ruganda.

I. Introduction
It can either be general or contextualized.
In Shreds of Tenderness by John Ruganda people actually take advantage of the political instability to either enrich themselves or engage in activities that benefit their greed for property or sexual desires such characters include; Katali Kawe, major General Ali, soldiers and Odie.

O. I. Odie.
After Wak has gone to exile after the police have failed to arrest him, Odie takes advantage of his absence to inherit the family estate. While Wak is suffering as a refugee in a foreign country, Odie advertises in the orbituary column of the Argus paper that Wak is dead. He then goes ahead to the lands office and changes everything to his name using corrupt means. This is to ensure that he disinherits from
Wak all the property his father had bequeathed him. He takes advantage of the restlessness in the country to achieve this.

O. II. Katalikawe.
During this period of unrest, people like Katalikawe endears themselves to the military regime. They use this opportunity to amass a lot of wealth. He never went beyond form four and he never used to perform well in class. But when Wak comes back from exile, his astonished at the amount of wealth he has suddenly acquired when ten years ago he was very poor.

O. III. Boss /head of state.
He colludes with foreigners to siphon the country’s resources for his own benefit. For example when Odie is enacting how he had betrayed Wak to Boss. He says that Boss is ignoramus, he is hoarding food to the boers in South Africa, he engaged in slave trade with the Arabs and he has acquired another skyscraper in the West.

O. IV. Foreigners.
They also take advantage of the restlessness to pretend to be supporting the group in power, yet their aim is to take the natural resources in the country.

O. V. Major General Ali.
He also takes advantage of the prevailing situation to use his position to force Stella to have a love affair with him yet he is the same man who had signed the death warrant of her father.

O. VI. Soldiers.
The soldiers serving the military regime also take advantage of the political instability to raid Stella’s school, rape nuns and girls. Stella is hospitalized left pregnant.She is unable to sit her ‘A’ level exams. This is to satisfy their sexual desires.

O. VII. Odie.
Works for the SRB as an informer with the purpose of doing away with people he deems as his enemies to buy has peace and security. E.g. Pepe, Daudi, Wak.
Expect four well illustrated points. Mark 3: 3:3: 3

Can either be general or specific.

3 (c). Witi Ihimacra. The Whale Rider.

The society in Ihimacra’s novel is a patriachial society which has some negative beliefs about women. Women are discredited but this is disapproved by Kahu who assumes a leadership position.
Accept any other relevant introduction.

S t I. Training on cultural ways.
Women are kept away from the training on cultural ways which are considered sacred for men.
T his is proved wrong when Kahu gets interested in Maori culture and is destined to lead the people.

St II. Leadership.
Women are not allowed to assume leadership positions in the community. The chieftaincy is passed on from the eldest son to the eldest son. Kahu shatters this belief for she is poused to become the leader of the community. Nani flowers ancestor, Muriwai was one of the greatest woman chief in her time whose blood Nani believers, throbs in Kahu’s veins.

St III. The ancient bull whale’s return to sea.
When the men fail to make the ancient bull whale to return to the sea, it is Kahu who aids the community and saves it from perishing.

St IV. The heir
Koro Aspirana strongly believes that it must be a male heir to inherit the seat of porourangi. But he is disapproved when Kahu a girl emerges as the chosen one.
Expect details.
Accept any other relevant point
Mark 3: 3: 3 :3
It can be general or a summary of what has been discussed.

20 marks

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