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Geography Paper 1

SECTION A (25 Marks)

Answer all questions

1(a) Occurrence of a sea breeze

 During the day the lands heats faster than the sea

 Warm air over the land rises

 Cool air from the sea blows towards the land

 Cool air from the sea is called sea breeze 4 x 1 = (4 mks)

(b) Effects of a warm ocean current

 Warm adjacent land increasing temperature

 Increases humidity/moisture

 Leads to rainfall

6 marks


2(a) What is a longitude? 2 mks

 Is the angular distance of a place east of west of the prime meridian and from center of the earth OR Imaginary line drawn on the earths globe from North Pole to South Pole and measured in degrees East or West of Prime meridian Any 1 x 2 =2 mks

b (i) Time Difference in degrees longitude is 74o+35=109o Time=109ox4=436 minutes 436/60=7 hrs 16 minutes 8.00+7.16=15.16 hrs Time is 3.16 p.m 2 mks

(ii) Effects of International dateline

-When crossing the line East to West a day is lost.

-Crossing the line West to East a day is gained.

6 marks


(a) System of fold mountains to man-North America

 Appalachaians

 Rocky 1x2=2mks

(b)Negative effects of fold mountains

 Barriers to transport,thus makes construction of transport lines expensive

 Rugged nature discourage settlemet

 Rainfall barrier on the leeward side

4 marks


4(a)Climate Is the average weather conditions of a place observed and recorded for a period of 35 yrs 2 mks

4 marks


5(a) Desert features due to water action

 Wadis /chebkha

 Playas/salinah/sebkha

 Bajada /bahada

 Pediment

 Inselbergs Any 2x1=2mks

(b)Conditons of wind deposition

 Nature of the desert

 Variation in weather conditions

 Strength and direction of the wind

 Amount of load carried

4 marks

SECTION B (70 Marks)

Answer question 6 and any other two questions in this section.

i)Approximate altitude of Kitale town 1900m 2mks

ii)Area of Kitale town Full squares-6

Half squares- 16/2 = 8 14km2

b)Description of relief

 Area to the West is generally gentle

 There is a ridge to the N.E

 Area slopes gently to the South

 Highest point is 2362m

 There are depressions filled by water forming swamps Any 4x1=4mks

c)Economic activities carried out

 Transportation-All weather roads,bounds-surface+loose surface

 Trade-Numerous settlement/Build up areas.

 Cattle-rearing-cattle dip

 Farming/cultivation-plantations,farms ]

d)Rectangle of the area bounded by Easting 43+50 and 11+15


 Obsearvation

 Interviewing Any 2x1=2mks

ii)Riverrine trees

-Papyrus reeds.

-Scattered trees 2mks

iii)  Settlement

 Transport

 Farming

iv)Why a map

 Know the extend of the area

 Approximate time needed for study

 Know the direction of the area/routes

 Approximate expenditure.

24 marks


7ai)An ice sheet Is a continuous thin mass of ice covering a large area/surface (2mks)

ii)Two reasons why there are no ice-sheets in Kenya (2mks)

 High temperatures under which ice-sheets cannot form

 Kenya is at a low altitude

 Kenya is located at low latitude

 Kenyan coast washed by warm currents. 2x1 mks

iii)Three factors that influence movement of ice from the place of accumulation

 Gradient of the land-Ice moves faster on steep slopes

 Temperature-High temperature results into thawing of ice hence speeding its movement

 Nature of the surface-When surface is rough,friction will lower the speed of movement

 Size/thickness of the glacier-large masses of ice exert pressure causing melting underneath hence increasing the speed 3x2=6mks b)Formation of a pyramidal peak

 Two or more crack or hollows exist on a mountain side.

 Hollow or cracks are filled with ice.

 Ice erodes the sides through plucking and deepens the hollow through abrasion

 The back walls slowly recede through erosion /retreats through backward erosion.

 The knife-edged ridge separating the hollows meet at the mountain top forming a sharp pointed feature known as pyramidal peak. 4 mks

C i)Glacial depositional features -Eskers-Drumslins-Crag and tail. -Bonider trains ii)Postive effects of glacial upland features

 Features such as pyramidal peak attract tourists earning foreign exchange.

 Water from hanging valley form water falls for H.E.P generation

 Some U-shaped glacial troughs form channels for development of water route ways.

 Some glaciated uplands provide suitable grazing lands.

 Submerged glacial features like fiords form good natural habour. 4x2=8mks 8)

17 marks


b) Characteristics of savannah vegetation.

 The forests are open i.e open woodland.

 Some trees species are evergreen.

 Many trees are deciduous

 In very dry areas woody srubs replace forests.

 Thickets and bushes are widespread.

 Many of the plants are sweet smelling.

 Plants and flowers blossom in spring and remain dormant until rains come.

 In the more wetter areas coniferous forests are common.

 Herbs,creepers and bulbous plants are common. 6x1=6 mks

c) Adaptation of coniferous forests.

 Needle shaped leaves reduce water loss in winter.

 Leaves have a tough waxy skin for protection from cold winter.

 Most trees are evergreen to maximum utilize sunlight during summer.


b) Factors that influence distribution of vegetation

i) Variation in temperature .

 Hot and moist lowlands have a variety of plants i.etropical forests.

 Hot and drier areas have scrub.

 Cooler highlands have fewer trees species.

 Cold mountain areas- heath and moorland. 2x1=2mks

Ii) Soils

 Soils can leads to variation of vegetation on a slope.

 Light deep soils in coastal areas support palms,scattered grass and mixed shrubs.

 Loans and volcanic soils have variety of healthy plants. 2x1=2mks iii) Drainage

 Luxuriant vegetation along water courses due to a bundant moisture.

 Well drained soils support wider variety of plants.

 Water logged areas have papyrus vegetation.

 Coastal flats support mangrove 2x1=2mks

e) Field study on vegetation. i) Why sampling would be appropriate.

 Would save time.

 Is less expensive.

 Give a detailed study.

 Easy to collect data. 2x1=2mks ii) Problems and solutions

 Difficult to access some areas sample accessible areas.

 Difficult in identifying plants-consult a botanist-read widely about plants in the area.

20 marks


a i) Vulcanicity is the process in which solid, liquid or gaseous materials are forced out of the interior into earth crust or onto surface While Volcanicity is the process whereby volcanic material reach the surface of the Earth. Complete comparison 2mks `

ii) Plug dome is a column of very thick lava that sticks above the ground like a pillar/cylindrical column examples- hyrax hill, fischer tower Volcanic plug-Magma solidifies in the vent of a volcano hence blocking it forming peaks e.g Lenana,Batian,Nelean. 2x2=4mks b) Formation of Caldera due to violent explosion.

 Volcanic eruption leads to formation of a volcanic mountain.

 Magma moving through the vent settles and solidifies before reaching the surface.

 This firmly seals the vent.

 Gases and steam built beneath the volcano creating great pressure. `

 Excess pressure causes the volcano to explode.

 Top of the volcano is blown off leaving a large depression called caldera.

C) i) What is a gyser-hot water vapour gases and water jetting out of the earth at great pressure. 1mk

ii) Extension boundary

 More away from each other.

 Movement causes cracks and fissures to develop.

 Magma flows out,cools and solidifies forming features. Comparession boundary

 Plates moves towards each other.

 Collission of plates causes sinking of one plate.

 Molten rock in the mantle moves to the surface cooling and solidifying. Each 2x2=4mks d) Negative effets of volcanicity.

 Volcanic features like cones crates are barriers to transport and communication lines.

 Volcanic mountains have rain shadow effect of leeward slopes hence discourage agriculture.

 Fresh lava flows have immature soils unfit for agriculture-Chyulu.

 Volcanic eruption forms steep slopes that hinder settlements.

 Areas with signs of a ctive volcanicity i.e bogoria,create fear and prevent human settlement. Any 4x2=8mks 10a Submerged coasts.

 Ria

 Fjord/fiord.

 Dalmaltion.

 Estuarine. 3x1=3mks b) Wave erosion

 Corrasion/Abbrasion. Rock fragmants carried by the waves grind against the cliff face as the wave break removing chips of rocks.

 Solution/corrosion Waves dissolve and remove soluble materials that are found in cliff face.

 Attrition. Particles carried in the turbulence of the waves hit against each other reducing in size.

 Hydraulic action. Swash hit against the cliffs shattering the rocks/swash compresses then air within the rocks

that eventually shatters the rocks. 3x2=6mks

C)Formation of a stack.

 Coast with a headland is attacked by waves on both sides.

 Wave erosion by abrasion forms a notch at the base of headland.

 The notch is eroded further forming caves on both sides.

 Caves join together forming an arch.

 The roof of the arch collapses due to weathering leaving an isolated mass of rock in the sea known as a stack.

16 marks


 Beaches

 Coral reefs

 Blowholes

 Archs

 Stumps

 Caves

 Cliffs

 Spits.
d)ii)Benefits of coastal features.
 Features like beaches attract tourists.

 Fishing grounds in shallow continental shelf.

 Deep coastal inlets have made good habours.

 Coastal habitat provide good environment for research and education.

 Coral limestone is raw material for cement industry.

 Coral rocks are materials for building.

 Shells are used for ornamental purpose.

25 marks

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