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History and Government Paper 2

SECTION A (25 Marks)


–Some information was inaccurate.

-Most written records were by foreigners who were biased.

-Were limited to the literate. -Essential information may be omitted.

-The cost of written material if high. -Reading written records is time consuming.

-Information may be inaccessible due to Government restrictions.

2 marks


–Mechanization on farms rendered people jobless.

-Enclosure system made people landless.

2 marks


-They lacked a common language of communication.

-Lack of the measure of value.

-Lack of double coincidence of want.

-Indivisibility of goods.

-Hard to transport bulky goods.

1 marks


-All weather roads.

-Are wide.


-Good drainage.



2 marks


-Drum beats relay specific messages unlike smoke.

-Drum beats could be used during all seasons unlike smoke in the rain.

-Drums could be used both day and night while smoke is only used during the day.

1 marks


-Coal is bulky.

-Coal is a pollutant.

-Coal is expensive.

-Coal is non-renewable. .

1 marks


-Administrative centre.

-Religious centre

-Commercial centre

-Education centre.

-Transport centre.

-Recreation centre.

-Industrial centre.

-Residential centre.

-Historical centre.

2 marks


-It brought kings together to pledge loyalty to the Asante hene.

-Promoted unity among the Asante states.

-It gave people an opportunity to honour the dead.

-The Asante were able to solve disputes amongst themselves. (1 x 1 = 1 mark) 9. -Collaboration.

2 marks




1 marks


-Collected taxes on behalf of colonialists.

-Solved minor disputes among Africans.

-Recruited labour for Europeans.

-Supervised communal work.

-Interpreted government policies.

2 marks



-Sending petitions to the Government.

-Forming political parties.

-Hunger strikes.

-Use of mass media.

-Forming trade unions.

-The church condemned Apartheid.

-They sort support of the O.A.U.

2 marks


-The assassination of Arch Duke Franz Ferdinand of Australia in Sarefeno.1x1 (1mark)

2 marks


-It ended the economic dominion of the world by European countries.

-There was massive destruction of property.

-Created employment.

-Led to economic depression.

-Led to development of engineering.

2 marks


-The re-armament of Germany. 1 x1 =( 1 mark)

2 marks


-Promoted the spirit of togetherness among Africans all over the world.

-It gave moral support to African nationalists during struggle for independence.

-It provided a forum for Africans to discuss common matters.

-Led to establishment of O.A.U.

2 marks


-There was an army muting.

-There were protests by the Daresalam University in 1966.

-There was a tax by Iddi Amin.

-Failure of the ujamaa policy.

-Assassination of Abeid Karume.

2 marks




-Common Wealth



1 marks

SECTION B (45 Marks)

Choose any three questions

-Cutting meat and vegetables.

-Grinding tough vegetables.

-Skimming animals.

-Scrapping skins.

-Digging roots.



-Hunting. 5 x 1 = (5 marks)

b. -Warming himself during cold nights.

-Flames give him light.

-Kept away dangerous animals.

-To cook and soften his food.

-To harden the tips of tools.

-To hunt by scaring wild animals towards muddy or swampy areas at night.

-To preserve his food. -Was a means of communication.

15 marks


-Prisoners of war and animals were sold as slaves.

-Some were kidnapped and sold. -Children were entoced with sweets.

-Debtors were sold as slaves.

-Village were raided and captured. 3 x 1 =(3 marks)

b. -Industrialization

– use of machine is farms and industries made slaves redundant

. -Economists argued that free people work better than slaves. -Missionaries were against slave trade. -Slave revolts. -American civil war. -Contribution of Africans e.g. Nziya Mbemba of Congo.

-French Revelation of 1789 spread the ideas of equality, liberty and brotherhood.

-Britain abolished slavery in all her territories and persuaded other countries to do the same.

15 marks


-Trade between Africa and Mesopotamia helped in the spread of iron working.

-Migrating Bantus spread the skill.

-Travellers and messengers spread the art by giving or receiving gifts of iron.

-It was spread through warfare. -Intermarriages between clans and communities.

-Development of agriculture led to demand for better tools to improve food production. 5 x 1 = (5 marks)

b. -Development of Agriculture as a result of better iron tools.

-Expansion of empires because communities had better iron weapons.

-Population increased as a result of increased food production. -Classes of people.

-Trade /international trade developed as people exchanged tools with other items.

-Towns centres of iron working attracted people.

-Migration of communities as they had better farming and fighting equipment.

-Construction and building works. Iron was used in bridges, pyramids, temples and houses. Division of labour/specialization

–smelting, pottery, weaving, farming. Development of region

– statues of metals

15 marks


-Apartheid policy.

-Embargoes / economic sanctions.

-Labour unrest /strikes /riots /demonstrations.

-Inadequate infrastructure.

-High poverty levels.

-High crime rate.


b. -Growth of towns.

-Population increase improved medical services, food and marriage.

-Poor living and housing conditions.



– urban migration.




-Poor working conditions in factories.

-Change of landscape

– grazing and became vast factories.

-Social groups

–middle class.

15 marks

SECTION C (30 Marks)

Choose any two questions

-European administration were for the vast African territory.

-It involved less funds. -It reduced resistance to colonial rule.

-Europeans were ignorant of African language and culture.

-It enabled them introduce modern ideas to Africans without interfering with their culture.

-There was poor transport network which hindered British officials to work efficiently.

-It had succeeded in Uganda and India.

-There was already a well established system of government in Northern Nigeria based on Islam. (5 x 1 = 5 marks)

b. -Centralized African communities were not ready to abandon their culture.

-Making Africans equal to French would make a difficult to force Africans work in French mines.

-The French feared that assimilated Africans would become economic rivals.

-The policy was expensive – high cost.

-It was difficult to absorb Africans in the French Culture.

-Traditional African rulers did not want to loose their authority to the assimilated Africans.

-African Muslims resisted the attempt to convert them to Christianity.

-The French citizens in the national assembly feared to be outnumbered by the Africans.

-Schools in W.A. were controlled by missionaries who were only interested in converting Africans to Christianity and not making them Frenchmen. -The colonial period did not last long to enable Africans change their culture.

-The use of nationalism made Africans condemn the policy because they believed their Culture was superior.

15 marks


-He was the commander in a chief of the army. -He was the head of state and government.

-He was the chief religious leader.

-Appointed and dismissed officials.

-He was the final court of appeal.

-He controlled trade.

-He distributed land to the nobles.

b. -Good strong and able rulers.

-Was small and limited.

-Strategic positions.

-Centralized administration under Kabaka.

-Through trade she acquired forearms which she used to expand her kingdom.

-She had a strong economy based on Agriculture.

-The decline of Bunyioro –Kitara made her rise.

-Had a strong army

–that conquered other areas and a strong navy which made her guard-over L.Victoria.

-Ganda traditions which emphasized on the division of laborur. Women did farming. While men involved in politics, carpentry, smithing and cloth making.

15 marks


-To foster economic co-operation among member states.

-Liberalize trade between members (remove trade barriers)

-Achieve economic independence.

-To develop Agriculture, Commerce, Industry and other sectors of the economy.

-To enhance co-operation in communication and cultural matters.

-Improve the living standards of the people in member states.

-To promote and improve relations between member countries.

b. -Covers a large geographical area making it difficult to co-ordinate.

-Poor infrastructure between member states.

-Division between Francophone and Anglophone states.

-Most members continue to trade with other countries rather than ECOWAS.

-Political instability in member states e.g.Liberia, Sieira Leone, Burkina Faso.

-Foreign interference e.g. presence of French soldiers in Cote devoire.

-Some members violate the regulations of the organization.

-Nigeria is regarded with suspicion and mistrust because of her military power, wealth and large population.

-National interest outweighs common regional issues.

-Members of ECOWAS are also members of other organizations hence divided loyalty.

-Different currencies of member states fluctuate causing problems in exchange rates.

-The debt senice burden of ECOWAS keeps rising and unless cancelled it can cripple ECOWAS.

-Ideological differences between member states (favour capitalism and socialism). Border disputes between members of ECOWAS e.g Nigeria and Cameroon in 2002

15 marks

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