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History and Government Paper 2

SECTION A (25 Marks)

Answer all the questions in this section

(i) It provides information on the origins of human beings.

(ii) It provides information on people’s way of life/culture of early man/artifacts.

(iii) It helps people to locate historical sites.

(iv) It provides information in the archeological order of historical events/dating
historical events.

1 marks


(i) Had big brain capacity/high thinking capacity.

(ii) Walked upright/had an upright posture/bipedal.

(iii) Had ability to grasp objects

2 marks


(i) Making weapons.

(ii) Making tools.

(iii) Making sculptures.

(iv) Decorating the king’s palace.

(v) Making utensils.

(vi) Item of trade

1 marks


Along the Nile valley in Egypt.

1 marks


i. It is relatively cheap.

ii. It is easy to transport.

iii. It can be put into many uses.

1 marks


(i) It made easier for man to travel over long distances faster.

(ii) Agricultural goods were easily transported.

(iii) The wheel was used to move war chariots.

(iv) It influenced the making of pots

2 marks


(i) It hindered effective communication of the traders.

(ii) Its time consuming to communicate.

(iii) It is not easy to establish the exact value of goods/coincidence of wants.

(iv) Some trade items are indivisible thus making trade transactions not easy.

2 marks


(i) Poor/inadequate transport and communication systems

. (ii) Inadequate capital/funds necessary for effective administrations.

(iii) Company officials lacked administrative skills and experience.

(iv) There were few company officials to administer large areas.

(v) Resistance by African communities.

(vi) Lack of coordination between company offices in Europe and European
agents in Africa.

(vii) Company officials did not understand local languages/language barrier.

2 marks


(i) The flying shuttle of john Kay.

(ii) The spinning jenny of James Hargreaves.
(iii) The water frame of Richard Arkwright.

(iv) The spinning mule by Samuel Crompton.

(v) The cylindrical calico printing machine by Thomas Bell.

(vi) The cotton gin by Eli Whitney.

(vii) The steam power looms by Edmund Cartwright.

2 marks


To divide up Africa among European nations in a peaceful manner

1 marks


(i) To send represantives to the French chamber of deputies.

(ii) To vote like French.

(iii) To have educational opportunities like Frenchman.

(iv) Exemption from forced labour, taxation and arbitrary arrest.

(v) To trade.

(vi) Employment in the civil service.

(vii) Enjoyment in the French judicial service system.

(viii) Operating local authority structures similar to those in France.

2 marks


The assassination of the archduke of Austria, Franz Ferdinand by a Serbian student

1 marks


It boosted people’s morale/made people brave/encouraged Africans to fight against
the German

1 marks


(i) Makonde union (MANU)

(ii) Front for the liberation of Mozambique. (FRELIMO)

(iii) Committee of Mozambique. (COREMO

2 marks


(i) The coming to the power of Mikhail Gorbachev/liberal policy of Gorbachev.

(ii) Gorbachev’s policy of economic restructuring and

(iii) Collapse of communism in Eastern Europe and USSR/collapse of the USSR.

(iv) America diplomatic effort to foster friendly coexistence with the USSR

1 marks


(i) Through hereditary/peerage

(ii) Being nominated by the queen/monarch.

(iii) Election to the House of Commons.

(iv) By virtues of office.

(v) Appointments due to outstanding performance

2 marks


(i) Use of English as an official language.

(ii) Close economic ties between the rich and the poor nations.

(iii) Close cultural ties.

(iv) Recognition of the king/Queen of England as the head of the association.

(v) Regular consultation exchange of information between member states.

(vi) Similar education system among member states.

(vii) Similar public institution among member states

2 marks

SECTION B (45 Marks)

Answer any three questions from this section

(i) Development of transport system e.g. the wheel carts.

(ii) Political stability.

(iii) Availabibility of labour.

(iv) Availability of indigenous crops.

(v) Construction of canals/bucket irrigation.

(vi) Invention of farming tools e.g. hoes, ploughs, sickles etc.

(vii) Demand for food to feed the growing population.

(viii) Fertile soils.

(ix) Water for irrigation from Tigris and Euphrates Rivers.

(x) Settlement in Sumeria by people with knowledge about agriculture

(i) Increased food production due to improved methods of farming

(ii) Population increased due to abundant food supply.

(iii) Diversification of agriculture e.g new crops and animals were introduced.

(iv) Development of plantation farming in favor of subsistence farming.

(v) Increased food production due to improved methods of farming.

(vi) Large scale farms encouraged rich landlords to buy off poor farmers creating
a class of landless people.

(vii) Provision of raw materials led to expansion of industries.

(viii) Development of local and international trade.

(ix) Improved transport systems e.g. better roads and railways

. (x) Enhanced research and scientific inventions.

(xi) Displacement of the poor led to rural urban migration.
(xii)Farm mechanization led to redundancy of manual workers

15 marks


(i) It enhances human understanding of the universe.

(ii) It has led to development of advanced air defense systems.

(iii) It has enhanced effective mapping and surveillance on earth.

(iv) It has encouraged space tourism.

(v) It has facilitated scientific and technical development.

(i) Roads have promoted trade within and between countries.

(ii) Development of urban centre’s.

(iii) Roads earn the government a lot of foreign exchange.

(iv) Creation of employment opportunities in motor vehicle industry,
construction and road maintenance.

(v) It has facilitated transportation of raw materials to factories and finished
products to the markets.

(vi) It has promoted tourism as tourists can stop and views the wildlife in game
reserves and national parks.

(vii) Movement of people from one part of the world to another faster and

15 marks


(i) Christianity encouraged Africans to fight for equality

. (ii) Alienation of Africans land.

(iii) Pan-Africans influenced Africans to fight for freedom.

(iv) Exploitation of African laborers especially in mines.

(v) Urbanization encouraged Africans to interact and ask for their rights.

(vi) The World War II made African soldiers realize that there is no difference
between African people and whites.

(vii) Apartheid/racial discrimination in public places

(viii) African elite e.g. Rev. John Dube, Walter Sisulu, and Nelson Mandela
promoted national conscience in South Africa


(i) Harassment by security agents through arrests and detentions e.g. Nelson

. (ii) Many freedom fighters were exiled.

(iii) Their political parties were outlawed/banned e.g. ANC, PAC etc.

(iv) African journalists had their newspapers proscribed by government
/presscencorship (v) Freedom of movement was curtailed by pass laws.

(vi) Intimidation of trade unionists by security agents.

(vii) The killing of nationalists e.g. Steve Biko and the shooting of hundreds of a
schoolchild’s during the Sharpeville massacre

15 marks


(i) The British had superior weapons compared to the Ndebele.

(ii) The British army was better organized than the Ndebele.

(iii) The British army got reinforcement from South Africa.

(iv) The Shona supported the British against the Ndebele.

(v) Lobengula and his soldiers were weakened by small pox.

(vi) The British had better trained army.

(i) Alienation of African land by white settlers leading to displacement of

(ii) African traditional rulers lost their political autonomy and served as puppets
of the British/loss of independence.

(iii) The British South African Company (BSACO) was given too much power in the
administration of the colony.

(iv) Africans were heavily taxed.

(v) African traditional economy was undermined as some Africans worked on
white farms.

(vi) Development of transport network.

(vii) Introduction of new crops in the region.

(viii) Christianity and western education undermined African culture.

(ix) Africans were subjected to poverty and suffering.

(x) Africans were derived freedom of movement by being confined in reserves
and required to carry identity cards.

(xi) Africans were subjected to forced labor

15 marks

SECTION C (30 Marks)

Answer any two questions from this section

(i) Presence of the centralized system of government.

(ii) Able leaders e.g. Osei Tutu, Osei Bonsu etc.

(iii) The golden stool bound the Asante states together.

(iv) Standing army for defense and expansion of the empire.

(v) Participation in trade brought her wealth.

(vi) Availability of minerals e.g. gold.

(vii) Strong economy based on agriculture.

(viii) The kingdom was surrounded by weaker neighboring states.

(ix) The Odwira festival held annually made the empire cohesive.

(i) It was a clan based society i.e. organized around clans.

(ii) They worshiped many gods and goddesses.

(iii) The golden stool acted as religious and a symbol of unity

. (iv) Had a national annual festival called ‘Odwira’ which united the kingdom
by making the state rulers to be loyal to the Asante

. (v) They worshipped gods through ancestors who acted as intermediaries
between gods and people.

(vi) Made sacrifices to their gods.

(vii) The Asante was a stratified society i.e. rulers, assistants, wealthy,
commoners and slaves.

(viii) Believed in the existence of the ancestral spirits/life after death

(ix) Practiced creative arts e.g. dancing, singing, sculpture etc.

(x) In the 19th century, the Asante people were converted to Islam.

15 marks


(i) People were expected to be self reliant.

(ii) The Tanzanians were to build a socialist society where all were equal.

(iii) To do away with discrimination

. (iv) The government was to acquire ownership of the principle sources and
means of production/nationalization of property.

(i) Economic hardships/lack of finances for funding development programs.

(ii) Frequent drought/famine which cause suffering to the people and eat
into the weak economy/harsh climate conditions.

(iii) Poor transport and communication network within the country.

(iv) Corruption and inefficiency in running of state corporations which has
led to low production

. (v) Devaluation of currency.

(vi) The collapse of the East African community in 1977 denied her a large
common market.

(vii) High rate of unemployment has led to widespread poverty amongst
the people.

(viii) Overreliance on primary commodities which are prone to price
fluctuation leads to lower foreign earnings.

15 marks



(i) Appoints state governors and Supreme Court judges/ambassadors.

(ii) Appoints the prime minister in consultation with parliament.

(iii) Assents bills in parliament.

(iv) Dissolves parliament.

(v) Can declare a state of emergency and rule by decree when state security is

(vi) Nominates the 12members to the council of states/upper house.

(i) It enables different states to live together without losing identities.

(ii) Enables states to have more economic viability.

(iii) States are more able to tackle their common problems jointly rather than

(iv) The existence of the joint defense force ensures security for small states.

(v) Several states work as one political unit.

(vi) Ensures that the interests of small states and minority groups are better

(vii) It enables member states to benefit from the federal pool of

(viii) It eases trade by eliminating custom duties.

15 marks

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