### SECTION A (25 Marks)

1.

(a) List two forms of condensation. (2mks)

(b) Give three factors which promote condensation. (3mks)

5 marks

2.

(a) What is river capture? (1mk)

(b) Study the diagram below and answer the questions that follow.

(i) Name the parts of the river marked A and C. (2mks)

(ii) State the conditions for river capture to occur. (2mks)

5 marks

3.

(a) Name two sources of water in the lake. (2mks)

(b) Give three effects of lakes on climate. (3mks)

5 marks

4.

The diagram below shows the hydrological cycle.

(a) What do arrows marked P and Q on the diagram represents. (2mks)

(b) State three factors that influence the occurence of surface run-off. (3mks)

5 marks

5.

(a) A part from fold mountains, name other features resulting from folding. (2mks)

(b) In which countries are the following folding mountains formed? (3mks)

Andes.

Cape ranges.

Alps.

5 marks

### SECTION B (75 Marks)

6.

Study the map of Karatina 1:50,000(sheet 121/3) provided and answer the following questions.

(a) (i) Convert the scale of the map into a statement scale. (2mks)

(ii) What is the direction of Mount Kenya campus at grid reference 932568

from the cattle dip at grid reference 990529? (2mks)

(iii) Give the longitudinal extent of area covered by the Map. (2mks)

(b) Account for the distribution of settlement in the area covered by the map. (6mks)
(c) (i) Draw a rectangle measuring 14cm by 10cm to represent the area enclosed by

the Easting 83 and 90 and Northing 45 and 50. (1mk)

(ii) On the rectangle, mark and name the following:

i. Tumutumu,Giatheri forest. (1mk)

ii. River Sagana. (1mk)

iii. Gatitu cattle dip. (1mk)

(d) Calculate the area of the Mt.Kenya forest enclosed by Northing 53 and 55 to the East of Easting 99. (2mks)

(e) Citing evidence from the map, identify four economic activities carried out in the area covered by the map. (4mks)

(f) Identify three social functions of Karatina town. (3mks)

25 marks

7.

(a) Define Glaciation. (2mks)

(b)Use the diagram below to answer the questions that follow.

i. Identify features marked A, B, C & D. (4mks)

ii. Describe the process involved in the formation of A above. (6mks)

(c) (i) Identify three types of Moraine. (3mks)

(ii) Mention two depositional landforms as a result of glaciations. (2mks)

(d) Explain four ways in which glaciated landscape is of significance to human activities. (8mks)

25 marks

8.

(a) Distinguish between a spring and a well? (2mks)

(b) Explain three conditions which are ideal for formation of Artesian wells. (6mks)

(c) The diagram below shows a cross-section of a cave in a limestone area.

i. Name the features marked P,Q and R. (3 marks)

ii. Describe how the feature marked P above is formed. (6mks)

(d) Name three features which form on the surface of a Karst Scenery. (3mks)

(e) Give three reasons why there are few settlements on a Karst Scenery. (3mks)

(f) State two ways in which limestone landscapes influence human activities.(2mks)

25 marks

9.

(a) Differentiate between faulting and folding. (2mks)

(b) Name three types of faults. (3mks)

(c) Give three examples of escarpments in East Africa. (3mks)

(d) Using well labeled diagrams, describe how the Rift valley was formed through tensional forces. (9mks)

e) Explain four ways in which faulting is of significance to human activities. (8mks)

25 marks

10.

Use the world map provided below and answer questions that follow.

25 marks

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