### SECTION A (25 Marks)

1.

(a). Name two theories that explain the origin of the solar system.

(b). State how the following forces help to explain the shape of the earth.

i. Gravity.

ii. Centrifugal force.

iii. Centripetal force.

5 marks

2.

(a). The diagram below show the hydrological cycle. Name the stages marked E, F, G and H in the cycle.

(b). Define the following terms.

i. Catchment area.

ii. River regime

6 marks

3.

(a). State two factors that may make the data collected from a school weather station to be inaccurate.

(b). State two important roles of a Stevenson Screen.

(c). State two characteristic features of a Stevenson Screen.

6 marks

4.

(a). Name two spheres of external structure of the earth.

(b). State two characteristics of the inner core.

4 marks

5.

(a). Draw a labeled diagram to show a well developed soil profile.

(b). Give two factors that determine the colour of the soil.

4 marks

### SECTION B (75 Marks)

Answer question 6 and any other two questions.
6.

Study the map of Kitale (1:50 000) provided and answer the following questions.

(a). (i). Give the six figure grid reference of the road junction at the place marked M.

(ii). State the magnetic variation of the area when the map extract was drawn.

(iii).Name three districts covered by the map extract.

(b). (i). Calculate the gradient of the district boundary from grid square 3932 to grid square 5027.

(ii). State two factors influencing the distribution of settlement in the area covered by the map.

(c). (i). Draw a sketch map of the area enclosed by the eastings 23 and 29 and the northings 11 and 16 measuring 12 cm by 10 cm. On the sketch map, mark and name the following;

- Swamp.

- Municipality boundary.

- River Koitobos.

(c). (ii). Citing evidence from the map, identify four economic activities carried out in the area covered by the sketch you have drawn.

(d). Explain three factors influencing the distribution of vegetation in the area covered by the map.

25 marks

7.

(a). What is Vulcanicity?

(b). State two characteristics of acidic magma.

(c). Using well labeled diagrams, describe how the following features are formed.

i. Batholiths

ii. Composite /complex volcanoes.

iii. State two characteristics of a composite volcano.

(d). Explain five positive significance of Vulcanicity to Human activities.

25 marks

8.

(a ). Name three types of desert surfaces.

(b). Explain three processes through which wind erode the desert surfaces.

(c). Using a well labeled diagrams, describe how the following desert features are formed.

i. Deflation Hollows

ii. Rock pedestal

iii. Barchan

(d). The following is a diagram showing different zones of saturation. Use it to answer the following questions.

i. Name the zone marked A,B C, and D.

ii. Which of the three zones is most appropriate to dig a well? Give reason.

iii. Name two surface features found in the Karst scenery.

(e). Explain two positive significance of features found in Limestone areas.

25 marks

9.

(a). Explain how the following factors affect vegetation type and distribution.

i. Aspect

ii. Biotic factors

(b). The diagram below shows vegetation zones of an East African mountain.

i. Name the vegetation zones marked a, b, and d.

ii. Give two reasons why there is no vegetation cover on top of the mountain.

(c). (i).Describe three main characteristics of the Tropical rainforest.

(ii). State three uses of Savannah vegetation.

(d). Suppose you intend to carry out a field study of the Mau forest.

(i) Mention two preparations you would do before the actual field study.

(ii) List two problems facing the Mau forest you would discover.

(iii) Suggest two solutions you would recommend to solve the above problems.

25 marks

10.

(a). State three ways in which ice may be formed.

(b). Distinguish between an ice cap and an ice berg.

(c). (i). Describe how ice moves through “extrusion flow”.

(ii). Other than extrusion flow, state three other processes of ice movement.

(d). Describe how a pyramidal peak is formed.

(e). List three features found in glaciated lowlands.

(f). Explain three positive effects of glaciation.

25 marks

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