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Geography Paper 1


a) Apart from moons and planets, name two other objects found in the solar system (2 mks)
b) State any three common characteristics of planets. (3 mks)

5 marks


a) Differentiate between mass wasting and mass movement (2 mks)
b) State three factors that influence soil creep (3 mks)

5 marks


a) Define the term river rejuvenation (2 mks)
b) Identify three features that result due to river rejuvenation (3 mks)

5 marks


. a) State two ways in which metamorphic rocks are formed (2 mks)
b) Give three characteristics of metamorphic rocks (3 mks)

5 marks


a)Apart from fold mountains, identify other two features formed as a result of folding (2mks)
b) State three ways in folding influence human activities (3mks)

5 marks


Study the map of Kitale, 1:50,000(Sheet 75/3)provided and answer the following questions.

a) (i) Give the six figure grid reference for the dam in Keelah farm to the Western part of the area(2 mks)

(ii) Identify two ways in which relief is represented on the area covered by the map (2 mks)

(iii)State four economic activities found in the area covered by the map (4 mks)

b)(i)Estimate the area of Kiptaberr forest (2 mks)

(ii)Measures the distance of the weather road C637 from junction in grid square 2528 to the junction
near Dafina estate. (2 mks)

c)(i) Draw a rectangle measuring 5 cm by 4 cm to represent the area between eastings 23 and 31 and
Northings 11 and21. (2 mks)
(ii) On the sketch drawn, mark and name;

  • Kitale Municipality
  • Road C641
  • River Koitobos (3 mks)

d) i) Give any two characteristics of climate of the area covered by the map. (2mks)

ii) Describe the drainage of the area covered by the map (6 mks)

25 marks


a)(i)What is a Caldera? (2mks)

(ii) Explain how an explosion could lead to the formation of a caldera (6 mks)

b)The diagram below shows some intrusive features formed by vulcanicity.

Use it to answer questions (a)

(i) Name features marked X,Y and Z (3 mks)
(ii)Explain how a dyke is formed (3 mks)

c) Explain four ways in which volcanic mountains positively influence human activities (8 mks)

d) Students carried a field study on volcanic rocks
(i)Give one reason why it is necessary to collect rocks samples during such a field study (1 mk)
(ii)State two problems they are likely to have experienced during the field study (2 mks)

25 marks


a)(i)Name three types of desert surfaces (3 mks)

(ii)Explain any three factors that make wind an effective agent of erosion in desert areas (6 mks)

b) Using well labeled diagrams describe how the following features are formed in desert areas

  • Mushrooms block (4 mks)
  • Barchan (4 mks)

c) (i)State four factors which influence wind transport (4 mks)

(ii)Describe how the following process of wind transport occur over desert surfaces

  • Saltation (2 mks)
  • Surface creep (2 mks)

25 marks


a) (i)Distinguish between a tide and a wave (2 mks)

(ii)State two causes of vertical movements of water in oceans (2 mks)

b) (i)Apart from hydraulic action, name two other processes of wave erosion (2 mks)

(ii)Describe how waves erode the coastline through hydraulic action (6 mks)


(i)Name the features marked H, J and K (3 mks)
(ii)Explain two factors which influence wave deposition (4 mks)

d)Students are planning to carry out a field study on coastal landforms in Kenya

(ii)State four reasons why it is important for the students to have a pre-visit of the area (4 mks)

(iii)One of the ways they would use to collect data is through direct observation.

Give two disadvantages of direct observation in the study of such an area (2 mks)

25 marks


a)(i)What is natural vegetation? (2 mks)

(ii)Explain how altitude influences the distribution of vegetation (6 mks)

b)Below is a map of Africa representing vegetation zones. Use it to answer the questions that follow.

(i)Identify the labeled vegetation types (3 mks)
(ii)State how the vegetation type marked R has adapted to the climatic conditions (5 mks)

c) (i)State any three characteristics of coniferous forests (4 mks)
(ii)Explain three ways in which the trees in coniferous forests are adapted to climatic conditions (6mks)

25 marks

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