SECTION A (20 Marks)

1.

The diagram below shows the structure of the earth. Use it to answer question (a).

a) Name the parts marked E and F (2mrks)

b) State three characteristics of the troposphere (3mrks)

5 marks

2.

a) Identify two forms of rock metamorphism (2mrks)

b) State the extrusive equivalent of the following intrusive igneous rocks

i) Granite (1mrk)

ii) Diorite (1mrk)

iii) Gabbro (1mrk)

5 marks

3.

a) What is a seismic wave (2mrks)

b) State three ways in which earthquakes affect human activities (3mrks)

5 marks

4.

a) Differentiate between illuviation and salinization (2mrks)

b) State three importance of water as a soil property (3mrks)

5 marks

5.

a) Identify two types of deltas (2mrks)

b) State three conditions that are ideal for the formation of a delta (3mrks)

5 marks

SECTION B (80 Marks)

6.

Study the map of Nkubu 1:50,000 provided and answer the following questions.

a) i) Give the six figure grid reference of the trigonometrical station (other)

to the north east of Gikongoro (1mrk)

ii) Measure the length of the dry weather road from the junction at Getaiga to the junction at Kaongo.

iii) Give the sheet number of the map to the south east of Nkubu (1mrk)

b) i) Using a vertical scale of 1cm rep[resents 40m, draw a cross-section along easting 56 from

grid reference 560,830 to grid reference 560,890. (4mrks)

- On the cross-section mark and label the following

River iraru (1mrk)

Main track (1mrk)
ii) Calculate the vertical exaggeration (2mrks)

c) Describe the relief of the area covered by the map (5mrks)

d) Form four students from Nkubu School carried out a field study on

distribution of settlement in the area covered by the map.

i) State two reasons why they had to divide themselves into groups (2mrks)

ii) Identity two settlement patterns they studied (2mrks)

iii) State three follow-up activities they might have carried after the study (3mrks)

17 marks

7.

a) Differentiate between fissure and vent eruption (2mrks)

b) Describe how the following features are formed.

i) Batholiths (6mrks)

ii) Volcanic plug (5mrks)

c) Explain three negative effects of volcanicity on human activities (6mrks)

d) You are planning to carry out a field study on features formed by volcanicity on the land scape

i) Formulate two null-hypothesis for the studies (2mrks)

ii) Name two drainage features you are likely to study (2mrks)

iii) State two methods you would use to record information during the study (2mrks)

25 marks

8.

a) i) What is reverse fault (2mrks)

ii) The diagram below represents an area affected by faulting. Name the parts marked E, F and G. (3mrks)

b) Describe the processes involved in the formation of the following features:

i) Fault step (5mrks)

ii) Rift valley by anticlinal arching (7mrks)

c) Explain four ways in which block mountains influence climate (8mrks

25 marks

9.

a) Name two mountains in East Africa where congelifraction is common (2mrks)

b) Describe the following types of weathering:

i) Pressure release (5mrks)

ii) Hydration (4mrks)

iii) Oxidation (4mrks)

c) Explain three ways in which plants cause weathering (6mrks)

d) i) what is an avalanche (1mrk)

ii) state three effects of avalanche (3mrks)

25 marks

10.

a) i) what is a spring? (2mrks)

ii) Explain three factors that influence the occurrence of underground water (6mrks)

b) state four condition necessary for the formation of an artesian well (4mrks)

c) i) state four characteristics of karst scenery (4mrks)

iii) with the aid of a well labeled diagram describe how a stalactite is formed (9mrks)

25 marks

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